well, I think we could spend ages looking through all of the mythological references in this manga, it's already been stated that it's incredibly detailed, and shinobu strikes me as an amazingly skilled author, let's not forget that even though there's this amount of references to myths there was still an incredible amount of detail in the politics of societies and even then the character development and plot was proper for an adventure manga.
That said I think shinobu started going with references to the 1001 nigths but then built further and researched on the mythological roots of it all. As the first poster mentions there might be a reference to the three magician kings (at least that's what they call them in my country), I think it's the three wise men in some other places (melchior, gaspar and balthazar were they called?), who gifted Jesus with gold, incense and myrrh. The three magi selecting someone to lead mankind could very well be based on this.
In this latest chapter I might have miscounted, but aren't those 12 people that were introduced accompanying solomon? I know the 12 apostles belong in another myth (all the way in the new testament, which is indeed far away from the history of solomon), but this could be the author stablishing a common line between the two religious figures identified as messiahs chosen by their creator to lead humanity, and hinting that jesus is simply a later version of king salomon, in a new, younger world (much like christianity is younger than muslinism).
As I wrote that last paragraph I thought of yet anoter thing, and this last one might be pure speculation (at least, more speculative than everything before this), but from the info on this chapter we know that humans previously lived in "utopia" (I'll refer to ala toran like this for now), and weren't the only intelligent race there, they were not the only intelligent species and plenty of races were able to thin and speak here, the utopia's creator favored them and chose above the other races, and while the story hasn't progressed further than this we can assume that something happened to make the humans end up on earth (they do call the world that in here, right?).
Fast forward to the current point in the flashback, all species live in peace in utopia, but somehow this story doesn't fit, we still don't know how the humans ended here and how they're the only speaking species, given how this is going it's not a long shot to say that it was the the fault of one of these people to have made the mistake that would land the here, now, a world where everything was peaceful and a lot of differnt species lived in harmony, but then someone made a mistake and now we're here, I do believe alma toran in itself is one big refernce to the garden of eden, and with all this, and knowing aladdin has been called "solomon's proxy" and has been sent by him to this world in order to prevent humanity from repeating past mistakes, we could assume that the role of "jesus" in this story is in fact alladdin's.